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Ask the Experts
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Anus is an organ that is at the end of the digestive tract rightbelow the rectum. It has two sections:
- The anal canal
- The anus
Anal canal is a 3 to 4 cm long structure between the anal sphincter right below the rectum and the anal verge which has to represent the transition point between both the digestive tract and the skin outside the body.
Muscles inside the anal canal and in the anus have to control the stool from the rectum to the outside of the body. Cancer of Anal is a tumor of either one the anal canal or theanal verge. In India, 80% of anal cancers are cell cancers, resembling the cells that are found in the anal canal.
At the same time anal verge cancer is also called as perianal skin cancers. This is because usually they behave more like skin cancers rather than anal cancers.
The longest portion of the large intestine is the colon, it is also known as the large bowel. The last part of the digestive tractis the large intestine.
The largest intestine is a tube, about with about 5 to 6 feet of length; its first 5 feet help in making up the colon, then connecting to about 6 inches long rectum,
and finally ending with the anus. Till the time food reaches the colon which takes about 3 to 8 hours after eating, the nutrients are absorbed and the remaining of the thing is only liquid waste product. The colon has to change this remaining liquid waste into solid stool.
The stool can remain from about 10 hours to several days inside the colon before getting expelled through the anus. The longer stool remains in the colon, the higher is the risk for colon cancer. Colon cancer is a tissue that grows inside the wall of the colon. Most of the tumors begin when normal tissues inside the colon wall start forming apre-cancerous growth from the colon wall.
As this grows larger, the tumor is formed slowly. This takes many years, therefore allowing time for early detection with screening tests..
The largest solid organ of the body which is located on the right side of the abdomen just beneath the right diaphragm is the liver. The organs surrounding it include the gall bladder which is located just behind the liver, the small intestine, large intestine, the right kidney, and the pancreas. Liver is triangular in shape and it has been divided into two lobes; right and left, the right lobe which is larger of the two.
- It has to filter the blood in order to remove and has to process toxins.
- Synthesizing and excretion of bile, as it is important in processing of fats from our diet.
- Regulation of glucose levels.
- Production of factors that play an important role in blood clotting.
Liver cancer occurs when an error is in the regulation of growth of any of the cells in the liver, including the liver cells as well, the cells of the bile duct, or the blood vessels in the liver. Tumors in the liver can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors start to grow uncontrolled. They do not need to break off and to spread beyond where they have started, and they need do not invade into surrounding tissues either.
However Malignant tumors, do eventually invade and do damage to other tissues thatare around them. Also they gain the ability of breaking off from where they have started and to be able spread to other parts of the body, this usually happens either through the blood stream or through the lymphatic system where the lymph nodes have been located.
Over the period of time, the malignant tumor cells start to become more and more abnormal and they start to appear less like normal cells. This change of the appearance of cancer cells isknown as the tumor grade. There are a lot of benign liver tumors. Most common benign tumor of the liver being Hematologists, they occur when a benign, tumor that has been filled with blood is formed within the liver.
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Frequently Asked Questions
Liver cancer treatment sometimes includes one or more of the same therapies that are used for bile duct cancer treatment. More often, however, a different treatment approach is used for each condition. For instance, one of the most common chemotherapy drugs for treating liver cancer (floxuridine) is not often used to treat bile duct cancers, while one of the most common medications for treating bile duct cancer (gemcitabine) is seldom used in the treatment of liver cancer. This is because there are small – yet significant – differences in liver tumors and bile duct tumors, and tailoring treatment to reflect these differences can make a difference in a patient’s outcome and quality of life.
Surgery is commonly used for both liver and bile duct cancer, but different approaches are taken in each situation. For certain liver cancers, only part of the liver may be removed, while the bile ducts are left in place. For certain bile duct cancers, on the other hand, the bile ducts must be removed. It may also be necessary to remove the gallbladder and one or more surrounding lymph nodes when treating either of these cancers.
Drinking alcohol in moderation (or abstaining entirely) is one way to reduce the risk of developing liver cancer. Research has shown that heavy, long-term alcohol use can cause inflammation and scarring in the liver. Cirrhosis, a form of liver disease that is characterized by irreversible liver damage, is one of the main known risk factors for liver cancer. As the body attempts to repair the damaged tissues, the liver cells can develop mutations in their DNA, potentially allowing cancer to develop. It is recommended that men have no more than two alcoholic beverages per day, while women should have no more than one.
Like any type of treatment, liver cancer surgery has certain risks. These risks can vary from procedure to procedure, with less complex and less invasive procedures tending to have lower complication rates. The risks can also vary from person to person, as a patient’s age, weight, blood pressure, cardiovascular health, and other similar factors can influence the outcome of his or her operation.
A potential major side effect of liver cancer surgery is internal bleeding. Large amounts of blood pass through the liver, and the liver also produces substances that help the blood to clot. After surgery, blood counts can drop, necessitating a transfusion. Usually, these issues begin to improve within two to five days after surgery.
Other possible risks include:
Nutrition can be an important factor in your liver cancer journey. Consuming a healthy, balanced diet before, during, and after your treatment can help you feel better, maintain your strength, and promote your recovery.
Each day, you should aim to eat five or six small meals that are spaced approximately three hours apart. This strategy will help ensure that your body receives a sufficient influx of nutrients, proteins, and calories. At the same time, it can help reduce your risk of experiencing side effects related to your liver cancer treatment, such as nausea. Some potentially beneficial food and beverage choices include:
Lean proteins, such as chicken, turkey, fish, eggs, low-fat dairy products, nuts, and soy, can boost your immune system and promote healing
Whole grains, such as oatmeal, whole wheat bread, brown rice, and whole-grain pasta, are good sources of carbohydrates and fiber that can increase your energy level
Colorful fruits and vegetables, which are rich in antioxidants that can help your body fight cancer
Healthy fats, such as those found in avocados, nuts, seeds, and olive oil, can help your body absorb essential nutrients and antioxidants
Plenty of water and other fluids to keep your body well hydrated, which is essential during liver cancer treatment
Additionally, it is important to limit your intake of sweets. Desserts, candies and other foods that contain added sugars provide minimal nutritional benefits and may take the place of other foods that are better for you.
Finally, it is important to keep in mind that your liver cancer journey and treatment are unique and that you may be unable to follow some of these suggestions for various reasons. Be sure to discuss nutrition with your oncologist, who can provide individualized advice and guidance.