Highest Success Rate for Liver Transplant for Kids in India

liver transplant in children

Children are also affected by liver diseases as much as adults. Some of these diseases manifest in infancy stage and as they grow there are at a higher risk of developing acute liver conditions. Pediatric liver diseases includes Neonatal Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that occurs only in early infancy, usually between one and two months post birth. About 23 percent of the infants with neonatal hepatitis are infected by a virus that caused the inflammation before birth by their mother or shortly after birth. These include rubella and hepatitis A, B or C viruses. In the remaining 77 percent of the cases, no specific virus can be identified as the cause. The infant with neonatal hepatitis usually has jaundice that appears at one to two months of age, is not gaining weight and growing normally, and has an enlarged liver and spleen.

Highest Success Rate for liver transplant in children

The infant cannot absorb vitamins for proper growth. People with neonatal hepatitis caused by rubella or cytomegalovirus are at risk of developing an infection of the brain that could lead to mental retardation or cerebral palsy. Many of these infants will also have permanent liver disease from the destruction of liver cells and the resulting scarring (cirrhosis).

Biliary Atresia

Biliary Atresia is a liver condition in which the bile ducts inside and outside the liver are scarred and blocked in infants. Bile can’t flow into the intestine, so bile builds up in the liver and damages it. The damage leads to scarring, loss of liver tissue and function, and ultimately leads to cirrhosis. This starts with a onset on jaundice (yellowing of skin and eyes) after which the organ stops responding.

Hepatoblastoma is a rare tumor (an abnormal tissue growth) that originates in cells inside the liver. It is the most common cancerous (malignant) liver tumor in early childhood. Most hepatoblastoma tumors begin in the right lobe of the liver further spreading onto the other lobe. Hepatoblastoma cancer cells also can spread to other areas of the body. The most common site of metastasis is the lungs in children. Hepatoblastoma primarily affects children from infancy to about 5 years of age. Maximun number of cases appear during the first 18 months of life. Hepatoblastoma affects white children more frequently than black children and is more common in boys than girls up to about age 5, when the gender difference disappears. It occurs more frequently in children who were born very prematurely with very low birth weights.

Choledochal Cysts

The choledochal cyst is a problem with the ducts (tubes). The tubes get bigger than normal (dilate) or pouches form on the tubes. This keeps bile from flowing well, which can cause liver problems. The common bile duct connects the liver to the gallbladder and the gallbladder to the small intestine. The gallbladder stores bile until the body needs it to digest food. Food triggers the gallbladder to contract and squeeze bile out into the intestine. Cysts can block the flow of bile. When bile doesn’t flow well, the bile ducts can get swollen and irritated (inflamed) or infected. This is called cholangitis. Over time, it can cause scars in the liver (cirrhosis). Then the liver cannot work well. Children with choledochal cysts may also get an inflamed pancreas (pancreatitis).

Metabolic Liver Diseases

Wilson’s disease This is a rare genetic disorder found in children in which large amount of copper builds up in the liver and brain. Wilson’s disease causes liver damage,It has two stages slowly progressive or acute and very severe. It can also cause damage to nervous system and damage to brain cells, which can lead to psychiatric and neuromuscular symptoms. Wilson’s disease can be fatal, but is often very responsive to medical treatment, especially if it is diagnosed before serious illness develops. Neonatal hemochromatosis. Neonatal hemochromatosis is a liver disease that is present in the fetus or at birth. Damage to the liver occurs during pregnancy which ultimately leads to the abnormal accumulation of iron within tissues. Iron accumulation occurs while the fetus is developing in the womb and fetal loss late in pregnancy is common in families with a history of neonatal hemochromatosis. Growth delays within the womb (intrauterine growth deficiencies) are also common and many newborns are born prematurely. Glycogen storage disease type I is a rare condition that changes the regular way of usage of the the body uses and stores glycogen, a form of sugar or glucose. Glycogen is a main source of energy for the body. Glycogen is stored in the liver. When the body needs more energy, certain proteins called enzymes break down glycogen into glucose. They send the glucose out into the body. When someone has GSD, they are missing one of the enzymes that breaks down glycogen. When an enzyme is missing, glycogen can build up in the liver. Or glycogen may not form properly. This can cause problems in the liver or muscles, or other parts of the body.GSD is passed down from parents to children (is hereditary). It is most often seen in babies or young children. But some forms of GSD may appear in adult.

  • Biliary Atresia.
  • Wilson’s Disease.
  • Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestatis.
  • Neonatal hepatitis.
  • Glycogen storage diseases.
  • Hyperoxaluria.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Q.1.How Is Ablation Used to Treat Liver Cancer?

An ablation is a form of cancer treatment that may be appropriate for certain patients with liver cancer. The goal of ablation is to destroy small tumors without having to surgically remove them, as not all patients are healthy enough to undergo major tumor resection surgery. This treatment can usually be performed on an outpatient basis, often with the assistance of ultrasound technology, by inserting a needle or similar instrument through the skin and into the tumor.

Types of ablation therapy

Multiple types of ablation therapy may be used to address liver cancer, including:

Radiofrequency ablation – This treatment exposes tumors to high-frequency radio waves to destroy cancer cells.

Microwave therapy – During this procedure, cancerous tissue is heated and destroyed using microwaves.

Ethanol ablation – Also known as alcohol ablation or percutaneous ethanol injection, this treatment involves injecting concentrated alcohol directly into a tumor.

Cryotherapy – This procedure destroys cancer cells by freezing them with a small metal probe.

The best type of ablation therapy for you will depend on several individual factors, such as the extent and specific makeup of your cancer as well as your overall health.

Chemotherapy is a form of treatment used for cancer that involves delivering powerful cancer-killing drugs into the body, either orally or intravenously. Chemotherapy is sometimes used as a treatment for liver cancer, though there are many chemotherapy drugs that this particular malignancy often resists. Cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and doxorubicin are the chemotherapy drugs that have proven most effective in treating liver cancer, but they still only shrink a small number of liver tumors. In most cases, chemotherapy is not a cure for liver cancer.

Because traditional chemotherapy is not effective in treating liver cancer, physicians sometimes recommend a different form of chemotherapy called hepatic artery infusion (HAI). This treatment involves putting the chemotherapy drugs directly into the hepatic artery, a short blood vessel that supplies blood to the liver. This technique allows more of the chemotherapy drugs to reach the tumor and is often more effective than traditional systemic chemotherapy. However, patients often need to undergo a procedure to insert a catheter into the hepatic artery before beginning HAI, and some liver cancer patients may not be strong enough to tolerate the procedure, making them unable to receive this kind of treatment.

Side effects of liver cancer chemotherapy

While chemotherapy drugs attack the rapidly dividing cancer cells, they also tend to affect other, healthy cells in the body that also divide quickly, such as those in the lining of the intestines and mouth, bone marrow, and hair follicles. When these cells are affected by chemotherapy medication, side effects may occur. The side effects a patient experiences will depend on the type and dose of their chemotherapy, though common side effects include:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Hair loss
  • Mouth sores
  • Loss of appetite
  • Additionally, chemotherapy drugs can also attack healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This can lead to an increased risk of infection, fatigue, and easy bruising or bleeding, respectively.

    Liver cancer is a rarer type of cancer that affects a small percentage of the population. Technically, there are three types of liver cancer, the most common being hepatocellular carcinoma that begins in hepatocytes which is the main type of liver cell. Interestingly, cancer originating in the liver is less common. Cancer that spreads from other parts of the body such as the lung, breast, stomach, and intestine are more common. These are called metastatic cancers.

    DNA, present in our cells, directs every single chemical process in our body through constant instructions. Sometimes the DNA mutates, or its genetic code changes. This disrupts the normal instruction cycles. As a result, cells start growing randomly and uncontrollably, creating a condition called a tumor. Such abnormal cells are called cancerous cells. This is how cancer occurs in general. When the same phenomenon happens in the liver, with the liver cells, the condition is liver cancer.

    One of the causes attributed to liver cancer is severe Hepatitis infection. However, with people who have not had a bout of hepatitis, what causes liver cancer is not clear.

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